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Continuum Smart Contracts

The primary objective of the Analog network is to merge disparate systems via PoT protocol that efficiently verifies time data. The platform allows developers to create arbitrary verifiable and time-driven applications with standardization, scalability, feature completeness, and interoperability.
The Analog network achieves this by implementing a layer-0 protocol with an inbuilt smart contract feature (continuum smart contracts), allowing developers to write their own codes for ownership of the time data, transition functions, and transaction formats. Continuum smart contracts operate much like conventional email marketing sequences because they are based on pre-set time intervals.
From a technical perspective, the Analog network can be perceived as a state transition system, where there is:
  • A “state” that indicates the specified time intervals.
  • A “state transition function” specifies a sequence of actions that only works based on the specified time intervals to generate a new state, the output.
  • We can formally define an Analog continuum smart contract as follows:

Employ (S, Transition)-> S’ or Error

The marketplace has three main stakeholders:
S is the state of the current state of the Timechain
Transition is the state transition function
S’ is the new status of the Timechain
The above system loosely translates to: trigger the state transition function when a period of S time has elapsed since an event. Otherwise, generate an error if the conditions are not satisfied.
For example, in medical diagnosis, a continuum smart contract such as:
Translates to: When 4 hours have elapsed since taking the first medication, turn on the desk lamp. Otherwise, generate an error message when 4 hours have not elapsed since taking the first medication when the desk lamp tries to turn on.
The platform’s continuum smart contracts have been written in a Turing-complete, Analog network Virtual Machine (ANVM)—a multi-paradigm, low-level language designed for performance and security. The code comprises a series of bytes that executes in an infinite loop, where each byte denotes an operation.
In general, code execution involves repeatedly carrying out the operation at the current program counter (PC)—which starts at zero—and then incrementing it by one until reaching the end of the code or generating an error message.
The formal execution model of ANVM is straightforward. While AVM is running, its complete computational state is a tuple-based system specified as follows:

Running ANVM (block_state, Transaction, time data, code, memory, PC, network fees)

The block_state is the global status of the Timechain and contains all the verified time data. For each round of execution, the protocol identifies each current instruction by considering the current address of the PC.
As a layer-0 protocol, the Analog network also integrates seamlessly with Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM), providing a cross-chain ecosystem between the two platforms. With EVM running on the Analog network, developers can seamlessly run popular applications such as MetaMask, Truffle, and Remix directly on the platform.

Practical Use Cases

The Analog network provides a more robust and evolved alternative to smart contracts as envisioned by Ethereum—the first Blockchain to implement smart contracts. As a multi-chain system, the Analog network interoperates seamlessly with other protocols to create a unique ecosystem for interconnected value chains.
The table below highlights the various use cases of the Analog network:
TraIndustry Problem Analog’s solution
Supply chain The current supply chain systems are disjointed. At each stage of the chain, data gets lost, or its format is changed, making it difficult to track the products. The lack of provenance mechanisms has resulted in many counterfeit products and bad actors With Analog, the products data gets synchronized via a global Timechain at each step.
Metaverse While cross-chain interoperability solutions exist, time data on one virtual world (say OpenSea) cannot be ported over to another (say Decentraland) if built on different Blockchains. Analog integrates disparate metaverse platforms via a single shared Timechain ecosystem. For example, a non-fungible token (NFT) can be purchased on OpenSea, and Decentraland gets the confirmation that a user has bought the token. Decentraland can proceed to award the user a space to display the newly bought tokens.
Healthcare The healthcare industry has numerous siloed and uncoordinated time data that makes it inefficient in addressing critical pain points facing individuals, insurance companies, and researchers. For example, users can encounter more complex health issues such as scheduling checkups and adherence to medication timings. Healthcare providers and individuals can leverage Analog’s Timegraph and incentive mechanisms to submit accurate time data that insurance companies and other stakeholders can use to manage healthcare issues. Because of the cross-chain capabilities and ZKP primitives, the Analog network creates a universal ledger that any stakeholder can access in a private manner.
Construction Failure to maintain and repair buildings on a predetermined schedule can increase the risks of structural damages or even collapse, as was the case with the Surfside condominium collapse. Stakeholders in the built sector can use Analog’s Timegraph to create a time-dependent DApp consisting of rewards and penalty mechanisms, time data verification, and an anonymous communication channel that alerts parties. With continuum smart contracts, a contractor can, for example, commit in advance to a timely renovation and maintenance schedule.
DeFi Popular DeFi protocols Uniswap, yEarn, and Aave provide lending services, allowing token holders to borrow loans and exchange other crypto-assets. However, they have weak assumptions about time data, which is crucial in today’s highly competitive and fast-paced environments. . For example, token holders cannot learn about their loan liquidations in real-time. Because of a lack of an interoperable platform, token holders cannot seamlessly transfer their assets from one platform to another. The Analog network is a layer-0 protocol that connects seamlessly with all other Blockchains-including all DeFi protocols—to create an interconnected value chain. By leveraging PoT, the Analog network can also capture time data to facilitate time-based transactions within the DeFi ecosystem.


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